What is income effect

If you are not familiar with the term income effect then you will get to know the all necessary information about income effect. It is referred to as the change in demand for a good or service that is caused by a change in a consumer’s purchasing power resulting from a change in real income. It is a part of consumer choice.

In this article, you will get to know more about the examples of income effect, their graphical representation, substitution effect, and income effect in tabular form and their differences. We will also answer all the frequently asked questions related to income and substitution effect.

What Is Income Effect?

The meaning of income effect refers to the change in the demand for a good as a result of a change in the income of a consumer. Only relative income (market prices) is concerned with the income effect. The change in demand for goods and services can be a rise in wages, etc.

It is a part of consumer choice that relates preferences to the consumption expenditures and consumers’ demand curves. It expresses how changes in market prices and incomes impact the consumption of consumer goods and services.

Read Also: What is considered as a good salary? Check Here

Examples Of Income Effect

After reading this example you will understand its meaning more perfectly.

For example: Alex earns $ 1,000 a month and he spends his entire income on only two commodities, that is a kiwi (priced at $ 1 each) and butter (priced at $5). Now we can make the following statements about Alex’s income:

Alex earns $ 1,000 unites of kiwi a month.

Alex earns 200 units of butter a month.

Therefore, a 100% increases in Alex’s monthly income ($ 1,000 to $ 2,000) results in the same effect as a 50% decrease in all prices (the kiwi’s price falls from $ 1 to $ 0.50 and the price of bread goes $ 5 to $ 2.50). In both cases, we can make the following statements about Alex’s income:

Alex earns 2,000 units of kiwi a month.

Alex earns 400 units of cheese a month.

Read More: What is gross pay? How you can differentiate your gross pay and net pay?

What Is Substitution Effect?

The substitution effect may occur when a consumer replaces cheaper or moderately priced items with ones that are more expensive items whenever a change occurs in their finance.

For example, Alex use to buy oranges priced at $2 each every month and after the change occur in his income he started buying kiwi and oranges priced at $2 each.

 It means when Alex’s income got increased he increased his expenses, this effect is known as the substitution effect. Know more about the substitution effect here.

What is the Price Effect?

what is price effect

Graphical Representation

Income effect and substitution effect graph

Difference Between Income Effect and Substitution Effect

Frequently Asked Question

In the case of inferior goods, income effect is positive or negative?

In the case of inferior goods, the income effect is negative. It remains negative because when the price of a good increases relative to other similar goods, then the consumers will tend to demand less of that good and they (consumers) will increase their demand for the similar goods to substitute. Here you can also about annual income by just clicking on the link https://lowearnings.com/salary/annual-income/.

Is the price effect a combination of income effect and substitution effect?

Yes, the price effect is a combination of income effect and substitution effect. It is a combination of income and substitution effect because the substitution effect always works in one direction and the income effect can be positive, negative, or zero in the case of normal. Inferior goods (including Giffen goods) or neutral goods.

What effect would reducing income tax rates have on the interest rates of municipal bonds?

Getting rid of the tax-exempt feature of municipal bonds would make them less desirable relative to Treasury bonds. The resulting decline in the demand for municipal bonds and an increase in demand for treasury bonds would raise the interest rates on municipal bonds.

If prices rise but income stays the same, what is the effect on the quantity demanded?

If the price rise but income stays the same, the effect on the quantity demanded will changes into immediate demand for a goods will rise if the price of the product is expected to rise. People will buy less or people will not buy any of the products when the price goes up.


In simple or easy words we can say that the income effect refers to the effect of the change in the real income of a consumer (person), on the other hand, the substitution effect refers to the substitution of one product for another. These are the two main elements of the effect of the change in the price of goods.